Born: March 14, 1879 in Ulm, Württemberg, Germany
Died: April 18, 1955 in Princeton, New Jersey, USA
A Chronology of Einstein's
(1879) Albert Einstein is born to Hermann Einstein (a featherbed salesman)
and Pauline in Ulm, Germany.
(1884) Around this time, Albert receives his first compass, beginning his
quest to investigate the natural world.
(1889) At age 10, Albert sets into a program of self education and reads as
much about science as he can.
Albert's Parents move from Munich to Pavia, Italy and Albert, 15, stays
on in Munich to finish the school year. Albert lasts only a term on his own
and follows his family to Pavia.
(1895) Albert attempts to skip high school by taking an entrance exam to
the Swiss Polytechnic, a top technical university, but he fails the arts
portion. His family sends him to the Swiss town of Aarau to finish high
(1896) Albert graduates from high school at the age of 17 and enrolls at
the ETH (the Federal Polytechnic) in Zurich.
(1898) Albert falls in love with Mileva Maric, a Hungarian classmate at the
(1900) Albert graduates from the ETH.
(1901) Albert becomes a Swiss citizen. Unemployed, he searches for work.
and Mileva meet in northern Italy for a tryst. Mileva becomes pregnant. In the
fall, Albert finds work in Schaffhausen, Switzerland as a tutor. Mileva,
visibly pregnant, moves to Stein Am Rhein, three miles upriver. Mileva then
moves to Hungary to give birth to their baby at her parent's home. Albert
moves to Bern.
(1902) In January, Mileva gives birth to their daughter, Lieserl, whom they
eventually put up for adoption. She reportedly becomes ill and then all record
of her disappears. Albert takes a job at the Swiss Patent Office. Hermann
Einstein becomes ill and dies.
(1903) Albert and Mileva marry in January.
(1904) Mileva gives birth to their first son, Hans Albert.
(1905) "Annus Mirabilis" -- Einstein's "Miracle Year": his Special
Theory of Relativity is born.
June 30th, Einstein, submits his paper, "On
the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies" to the leading German physics journal.
At age 26, he applies his theory to mass and energy and formulates the
(1906) Still living in Bern, Einstein continues as an Examiner at the Swiss
(1907) Einstein begins applying the laws of gravity to his Special Theory
(1910) Son Eduard is born.
(1911) The Einsteins move to Prague where Albert is given a full
professorship at the German University there. Albert is the youngest to attend
the invitation-only Solvay Conference in Brussels, the first world physics
(1912) The Einsteins move to Zurich where Albert is given a position as a
professor of Theoretical Physics at the ETH.
(1913) Einstein works on his new Theory of Gravity.
(1914) Einstein becomes director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin
and professor of theoretical physics at the University of Berlin. The family
moves there in April, but Mileva and the sons return to Zurich after 3 months.
The divorce proceedings begin. In August, World War I begins.
(1915) Einstein completes the General Theory of Relativity.
(1917) Einstein collapses and, near death, falls seriously ill. He is
nursed back to health by his cousin, Elsa. He publishes his first paper on
(1919) Albert marries Elsa. May 29, a solar eclipse proves Einstein's
General Theory of Relativity works.
(1922) Is awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for 1921.
(1927) Attends fifth Solvay Conference and begins developing the
foundation of quantum mechanics with Bohr.
(1928) Einstein begins pursing his idea of a unified field theory.
(1932) Einstein is 53 and at the height of his fame. Identified as a Jew,
he begins to feel the heat of Nazi Germany.
(1933) Albert and Elsa set sail for the United States. They settle in
Princeton, New Jersey where he assumes a post at the Institute for Advanced
(1936) Elsa dies after a brief illness.
(1939) World War II begins. Einstein writes a famous letter to President
Franklin D. Roosevelt warning of the possibility of Germany's building an
atomic bomb and urging nuclear research.
(1940) Einstein becomes an American citizen; retains Swiss citizenship.
(1949) Mileva dies.
(1955) Einstein dies of heart failure on April 16.
Einstein - Biography -- at World of Biography.
Albert Einstein - Biography at Noble E-Museum -- read his noble lecture
Albert Einstein Biography at U. of St. Andrews, Scotland
Albert Einstein I Physicist
Einstein Home Page
Time Magazine Person
of The Century -- offers a biography and several articles about his
life and the impact of his work, a photographic tour of his life and times,
and other web resources.
Einstein: The Scientist, The Philosopher; The Moralist, The Man
- Albert Einstein Library
-- includes an explanation of theories, pictures, a timeline, and a Q & A
- Albert Einstein Museum
- Albert Einstein - Person of
- Books by
Einstein in Princeton -- presented by the Historical Society of Princeton.
- Einstein Papers Project at
- Einstein: Image and Impact
at American Institute of Physics --
recounts the scientist's life through historical accounts, photographs, sound
clips, and documents.
- Einstein Revealed - Nova Online
-- a profile of Albert Einstein, with teaching resources, Shockwave
demonstrations, and animations of relativity concepts.
Einstein: Man in Space Time
Gravity B Probe -- a Stanford
Website about Einstein's theories.
Manifesto -- Issued in London, 9 July 1955
appendix II to Einstein's Relativity
- Albert Einstein Archives at The
Jewish National & University Library - Hebrew University of Jerusalem -
houses the literary estate of Albert Einstein.
- Albert Einstein at Bartleby.com
-- - complete text of Albert Einstein's classic 1920 work.
- Albert Einstein's
Letters to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt -- See and
read the August 2, 1939, letter from Einstein to President Roosevelt that
launched U.S. development of an atomic bomb
Einstein Reference Archive -- marxists.org
- Discussion with
Einstein on Epistemological Problems in Atomic Physics -- by Niels Bohr.
- The Ritz-Einstein
Agreement to Disagree (Present Stand on the Radiation Problem) -- by
Walter Ritz and Albert Einstein.
- Einstein Papers
Project - publishes The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, an
edition of twenty-five planned volumes of Albert Einstein's scientific,
professional and personal papers, manuscripts, and correspondence at Catech.
Field Theory with Teleparallelism -- (Auf die Riemann-Metrik und den
Fernparallelismus gegruendete einheitliche Feldtheorie); the English
translation of Einstein's paper in Math. Anal.102, (1930) pp 685-697.
with the F.B.I.
Historical Writings - Albert Einstein -- Online Text at Positive
by Albert Einstein.
Why War? -- from The Einstein-Freud Correspondence (1931-1932) The letter which Einstein addressed to Freud, concerning the projectcd
organization of intellectual leaders, was sent in 1931, or possibly 1932.
Links Related to Einstein Theories
- Albert Einstein College of Medicine
- Albert Einstein
Institut -- Potsdam, Germany.
- Atomic Museum
- Before the Day Breaks
-- by Immanuel Velikovsky (correspondence with Einstein).
Process' Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein Dies in Sleep at 76; World Mourns Loss of Great Scientist
-- 1955 obituary from the New York Times.
The Light Cone: Einstein-Minkowski Spacetime
- Einstein Alive -- by Arden Bercovitz
Einstein Ring, The -- Ring of web sites offers information from
Einstein devotees on everything from black holes to the possibility of time
Einstein: A Life
by Denis Brian -- a new book
Still right after all these years -- looks at his speed of light and space
time theories and their proofs black holes, gravity, Bose-Einstein condensate,
and gravitational lens.
- Einstein: The
Einstein, the Violin, and Relativity
- Introduction to Special
Relativity -- relativity explained to 6th graders.
Gravity Probe B, Stanford U. -- part of an ongoing project
to "test Einstein with orbiting gyroscopes" and offers a variety of Q&A on
relativity, FAQ and technical results of experiments.
- Picasso at the Lapin Agile
new show featuring Albert Einstein
Lecture Notes on General Relativity, U. of Chicago
- Luxon Theory -- the cause of the
- Modern Relativity
- Real Albert
Communism & Einstein -- A Challenge to Einstein's Theory by John Doan
- The Quantum Tai Chi
-- Gauge Theory: The Dance of Mind Over Matter
There is no place like