Instructional Design Document
The vehicle chosen for delivery of this one-hour module of instruction is a paper-based, original, three “act” play incorporating the concepts to be learned and opportunities to practice the performances that demonstrate skill in utilizing these concepts. Active learning is not only supported by educational psychology research as an effective method of instruction, but it was also one of the preferred methods identified via the learner analysis. The play is intended to be acted out in groups of three students. In addition to three copies of the script, each group should have:
1. props to assist in stimulating the students’ imaginations and encouraging active involvement;
2. paper, pens, and markers to write down important ideas they learned during the course of Act I, create a mind map of the aggregated ideas that they share out loud, complete a practice exercise, and create an original objective;
3. a completed mind map showing major concepts discussed in Act I and their relationships;
4. three copies of a practice exercise on Mager’s three major elements in an objective (behavior, conditions, and criterion) as well as an answer sheet
5. a rubric for the students to use in evaluating the original objective they create; and
6. three certificates of completion.
These materials should be contained
in a cloth bag, to: arouse curiosity; convey the message that something
out of the ordinary is about to transpire; and keep the materials organized and convenient to use.
In addition to its assessment
function, the pre-test acts as an attention-focusing device, thus serving the
“A” in Keller’s ARCS model and the first instructional event in Gagne’s nine
instructional events. Likewise,
the post-test, which is identical to the pre-test, not only implements Gagne’s Step Eight: Assessing the performance, but also reinforces the material, thus contributing to Step Nine: Enhancing retention and
transfer. In addition, the post-test (hopefully) contributes to the learner’s satisfaction (the” S” in ARCS) by clearly showing progress in knowledge and skills acquired, in comparison to the pre-test.
The overall sequence of the
instructional module moves from whole to part and back to whole, following
the linear order of the instructional analysis, with each step and its associated objectives serving as a cluster. Within Act I, the sequencing of materials generally moves from concrete to abstract; in presenting specific materials, egrul is applied in some cases, while ruleg is applied in others.
Because this instructional
design module represents a fabric of many interrelated threads, rather than
each objective independently to the ARCS model and the Nine Events of Instruction, the following
discussion will elaborate on ways that the instruction addresses each component of those two models, and suggest the relationship of the objective clusters to each component as well.
Through the principle of active
engagement, the format of the instruction is designed to pique and maintain
attention and interest in the subject matter; visuals, humor, use of language
(e.g., metaphor), and interaction
with peers (a la Vygotsky and Rogoff, among others) also are intended to contribute to the attention of the students toward the instruction being offered.
The first component of the
module, designated as Act I, includes an introduction to the topic of
objectives and incorporates the first three objective clusters, that is, the material related to behavior,
criterion, and conditions, which are the three elements of a good objective. Act Two and Act Three
continue to generate interest via a change of pace, through written practice and discussion. Specifically,
Act II reinforces the concepts presented in Act I, while Act III addresses the last two objective clusters
through the actual experience of writing and evaluating an objective.
The written material presented
explicitly reminds education students that writing good objectives is important
not only for academic success in college, but also in their future careers as
teachers. Since each of the five
objective clusters is directly related to a specific aspect of writing good instructional objectives, it is
believed that the students will find them relevant. By allowing the students to choose their own academic scenario from which to develop an objective (Objective Cluster Five), they will have the opportunity to bring their personal and professional interests into the assignment.
The issue of confidence is
addressed by offering the instruction in a cooperative group environment
in which students can help each other learn without the threat of competition or performance anxiety.
Through the use of a written script, each person will have a role to play and an opportunity to
contribute in a supportive environment. Repetition of the material and provision of an opportunity
to practice their new skills will also support the development and maintenance of learners' confidence
in their ability to succeed.
The instruction has been
designed to directly meet the needs of the students in the areas identified
by Maslow as esteem and belonging, and by Glasser as power and respect, and love and belonging, respectively. In addition, need for freedom and for fun (Glasser) are addressed through choices offered
and through the playful, yet series format.
NINE EVENTS OF INSTRUCTION
As noted in the
ARCS discussion, there are a number of strategies that are embedded in the
for the purpose of gaining attention, as well as other benefits. Through the principle of active engagement,
the format of the instruction is designed to pique and maintain attention and interest in the subject matter;
visuals, humor, use of language (e.g., metaphor), and interaction with peers (a la Vygotsky and Rogoff,
among others) also are intended to contribute to the attention of the students toward the instruction
being offered. The first component of the module, designated as Act I, includes an introduction to the
topic of objectives and incorporates material related to behavior, criterion, and conditions, which are the
three elements of a good objective. Acts Two and Three continue to generate interest via a change of
pace, through written practice and discussion. Specifically, Act II reinforces the concepts presented
in Act I, while Act III addresses the last two objective clusters of the instructional design module, through
the actual experience of writing and evaluating an objective.
Informing learner of the objective
objective of the instruction is stated at the beginning of the module. The
specific objectives are incorporated into the narrative of the play, and
revealed sequentially as the story progresses. Objectives
are also incorporated into the directions given for carrying out the tasks that are part of the module.
Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning
serves as the initial stimulus for recall of prior knowledge. Act I of the play
also uses concrete
examples related to students' life experiences to help activate their cognitive schemas related to the material
so they can connect existing knowledge with new information and elaborate upon prior learning to
construct new knowledge. In addition, since each objective cluster builds sequentially upon the ones
that precede them, the stimulation of recall of prerequisite learning is inherent in the process of completing
Presenting the stimulus material
writing good objectives is presented explicitly through the dialogue of the play
as well as
more subtly, via models of good objectives embedded within the script. Words that might be unfamiliar
are defined in the text or in a special note. Concrete examples, using commonplace objects and ideas
will be given to help the students understand the new material. After presentation of the information,
summaries are provided in the dialogue as well as by the actor-students themselves, who are asked to
write down important points from the discussion at Uncle Cabac's house. In addition, the students
will prepare mind maps, summarizing the major concepts and their relationships as they share with
each other what they have written. In this way, the material will be actively processed, in several ways.
Each person will have a script so he or she can visually take in the information.
The students will
be reading their lines out loud, thus engaging visual, auditory, and verbal
as they state correct information related to writing objectives.
In writing down
the major ideas in Act I, the students will not only be kinesthetically
will also be required to use cognitive processes to recall information, choose what they considered
to be main points, and think about the information presented.
By discussing with
each other, the points they wrote down, and drawing mind maps, it will be
necessary for the students to engage in further cognitive processing of the material, utilizing
both modes of thinking (i.e., parallel and serial).
It is anticipated
that the students' learning will be enhanced: through the social interaction
occur; through stimulation of the imagination due to the format of the instruction and the props that
will be provided; and through the use of humor and play, which is designed to help create a
low-stress environment and openness to learning, and engage the students.
Act Two basically
consists of a practice exercise to reinforce the three elements of a good
objective. Act Three addresses writing and evaluating an objective through the actual construction of an objective, then a co-evaluation of the objectives among the three group members, using the rubric
provided to determine acceptability of the objectives.
Providing learning guidance
provided via such scaffolding techniques as leading the students, through the
of the play, to make connections between prior and new knowledge as well as between one new concept
and another. The sequencing of the script also helps to guide the students from one idea to another,
building a foundation and then gradually adding to it. Another form of guidance is given by the
explanations and examples that are included to clarify concepts. In addition, peer guidance from
group members is anticipated.
Eliciting the performance
In various places
in the script, the students, in their respective character roles, will
produce the performances associated with the first three objective clusters of the instructional module,
which deal with the elements of a good objective: conditions, behavior, and criterion. In completing
the practice exercise, the students will also be implementing these three clusters. Act Three, which
requires and students to develop and evaluate original objectives, will result in the elicitation of the
performances of Objectives Clusters Four and Five.
Providing feedback about performance correctness
provided throughout Act I via the script, in the form of dialogue spoken by
Cabac, master teacher. In addition, the students will receive feedback by observing Uncle Cabac's
mind map, consulting the answer key to the objective-writing exercise, and comparing the objectives
rubric with the objectives they develop.
Assessing the performance
assessment can be done by administering the post-test to the students; the
may also engage in formative assessment by requesting the work completed by the students while using
the instructional module (i.e., practice exercise, summary of important ideas, mind map, and objective
created) to check student progress. In addition, the students will likely engage in self-assessment as they compare their products with Uncle Cabac's mind map, the answer key, the rubric, and the answers
contributed by the other members of the group as they discuss their work.
Enhancing retention and transfer
information through repetition is one of several techniques that were used to
retention and transfer for each of the objective clusters. Other strategies include metaphors and puns
to create vivid images of the material; mnemonic devices such as Uncle Cabac's name (Conditions
and behavior and criterion); active involvement with the material; and multi-sensory multi-processing
of the information. These strategies were incorporated across all five objective clusters