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Rosa Bonheur:

Edouard Manet:

Pierre-Auguste Renoir:

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Kent State Ohio

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Rosa Bonheur was one of the most renowned animal painters in history. Her earliest training was received from her father, a minor landscape painter, who encouraged her interest in art in general and in animals as her exclusive subject. He allowed her to keep a veritable menagerie in their home, including a sheep that is reported to have lived on the balcony of their sixth-floor Parisian apartment. Bonheur's unconventional lifestyle contributed to the myth that surrounded her during her lifetime. She smoked cigarettes in public, rode astride, and wore her hair short. To study the anatomy of animals, Bonheur visited the slaughterhouse; for this work, she favored men's attire and was required to obtain an official authorization from the police to dress in trousers and a smock. Because of this recognition from official sources, she was then awarded a commission from the French government to produce a painting on the subject of plowing. Plowing in Nivernais, exhibited at the Salon of 1849, firmly established her career in France.

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Plowing in the Nivernais:

    Carl Marx's ideals led to the themes in the painting. This is realism to the point of saliva coming out of the cows' mouths.  The shadows are natural.  This shows the importance of the lower class.

Rosa Bonheur:

Plowing in the Nivernais

       Pg. 993 Fig. 27-18