Sets
A
set is a collection of different things (distinguishable objects or distinct objects)
represented as a unit. The objects in a set are called its elements or
members. If an object x
is a member of a set S, we write x S. On the the hand, if x is not a member of S, we write z S. A
set cannot contain the same object more than once, and its elements are
not ordered.
For example, consider the set S= {7, 21, 57}.
Then 7 {7, 21,
57} and 8 {7, 21, 57} or equivalently, 7
S and 8 S.
We can also describe a set containing elements according to some rule.
We write
{n : rule about n}
Thus, {n : n = m^{2} for some m N } means that a set of perfect squares.
Set Cardinality
The number of elements
in a set is called cardinality or size of the set, denoted S
or sometimes n(S). The two sets have same cardinality if their elements
can be put into a onetoone
correspondence. It is easy to see that the cardinality of an
empty set is zero i.e., 
.
Mustiest
If we do want to take the number
of occurrences of members into
account, we call the group a multiset.
For example, {7} and {7, 7} are identical as set but {7} and {7, 7} are
different as multiset.
Infinite
Set
A set contains infinite elements. For example, set
of negative
integers, set of integers, etc.
Empty
Set
Set contain no member, denoted as or {}.
Subset
For two sets A and B, we say that A is a subset of B, written A B, if every member
of A also is a member of B.
Formally, A B if
x A implies x B
written
x A => x B.
Proper Subset
Set A is a proper subset of B, written A B, if A is a subset
of B and not equal to
B. That is, A set A is proper subset of B
if A B but A B.
Equal Sets
The sets A and B are equal, written A = B, if each is a subset of the
other. Rephrased definition, let A and B be sets. A = B if A B and B A.
Power
Set
Let A be the set. The power of A, written P(A) or 2^{A}, is the
set of all subsets of A. That is, P(A) = {B : B A}.
For example, consider A={0, 1}. The power set of A is {{}, {0}, {1},
{0, 1}}. And the power set of A is the set of all pairs (2tuples)
whose elements
are 0 and 1 is {(0, 0), (0, 1), (1, 0), (1, 1)}.
Disjoint Sets
Let A and B be sets. A and B are disjoint if AB
= .
Union of Sets
The union of A and B, written A
B, is the set we get by combining all elements in A and B into a single
set. That is,
For two finite sets A and B, we have identity
AB
= A + B  AB
We can conclude
AB
A + B
That is,
if AB
= 0 then AB
= A + B and if A B then A B
Intersection Sets
The intersection of set set A and B, written AB, is the set of
elements that are both in A and in B. That is,
Partition
of Set
A collection of S = {Si} of nonempty sets form a partition of a set if
i. The set are pairwise disjoint, that is,
Si, Sj and i j imply Si Sj = .
ii. Their union is S, that is, S =
Si
In other words, S form a partition of S if each element of S appears in
exactly on Si.
Difference of Sets
Let A and B be sets. The difference of A and B is
A  B = {x :
x A and x B}.
For example, let A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {2, 4, 6, 8}. The set difference
A  B = {1, 3} while BA = {4, 6, 8}.
Complement
of a Set
All set under consideration are subset of some large set U called universal set. Given a
universal set U, the complement of A, written A', is the set of all
elements under
consideration that are not in
A.
Formally, let A be a subset of universal set U. The complement of A in
U is
A' = A  U
OR
A' = {x : x U and x A}.
For any set A U, we have following laws
i.
A'' = A
ii. A A' = .
iii. A
A' = U
Symmetric difference
Let A and B be sets. The symmetric difference of A and B is
A B = { x : x A or x B but not both}
Therefore,
As an example, consider the following two sets A = {1, 2, 3} and B =
{2, 4, 6, 8}. The symmetric difference, AB = {1, 3, 4, 6, 8}.
Sequences
A sequence of objects is a list of objects in some order. For example,
the sequence 7, 21, 57 would be written as (7, 21, 57). In a set the
order does not matter but in a sequence it does.
Hence, (7, 21, 57) {57, 7, 21} But (7, 21, 57) = {57, 7, 21}.
Repetition
is not permitted in a
set but repetition is permitted in a sequence. So, (7, 7, 21, 57) is different from {7, 21, 57}.
Tuples
Finite sequence often are called tuples. For example,
(7, 21)
2tuple or pair
(7, 21, 57) 3tuple
(7, 21, ..., k ) ktuple
An ordered pair of two elements a and b is denoted (a, b) and can be
defined as (a, b) = (a, {a, b}).
Cartesian Product or Cross Product
If A and B are two sets, the cross product of A and B, written A×B, is the set of all pairs
wherein the first element is a member of the set A and the second
element is a member of the set B. Formally,
A×B = {(a, b) :
a A, b B}.
For example, let A = {1, 2} and B = {x, y, z}. Then A×B =
{(1, x), (1, y), (1, z), (2, x), (2, y), (2, z)}.
When A and B are finite sets, the cardinality of their product
is
A×B = A . B
ntuples
The cartesian product of n sets A_{1}, A_{2}, ..., A_{n}
is the set of ntuples
A_{1} × A_{2} × ... × A_{n} = {(a_{1}, ..., a_{n}) : a_{i} A_{i},
i = 1, 2, ..., n}
whose cardinality is

A_{1} × A_{2} × ... × A_{n}
= A_{1} . A_{2} ... A_{n}
If all sets are finite. We denote an nfold cartesian product over
a single set A by the set
A^{n}
= A
× A × ... × A
whose cardinality is
A^{n} 
=  A^{n}
if A is finite.^{}
^{
}