Process Operations


Process Creation

In general-purpose systems, some way is needed to create processes as needed during operation. There are four principal events led to processes creation.

Foreground processes interact with users. Background processes that stay in background sleeping but suddenly springing to life to handle activity such as email, webpage, printing, and so on. Background processes are called daemons. This call creates an exact clone of the calling process.

A process may create a new process by some create process such as 'fork'. It choose to does so, creating process is called parent process and the created one is called the child processes. Only one parent is needed to create a child process. Note that unlike plants and animals that use sexual representation, a process has only one parent. This creation of process (processes) yields a hierarchical structure of processes like one in the figure. Notice that each child has only one parent but each parent may have many children. After the fork, the two processes, the parent and the child, have the same memory image, the same environment strings and the same open files. After a process is created, both the parent and child have their own distinct address space. If either process changes a word in its address space, the change is not visible to the other process.

                                        <Figure 3.2 pp.55 From Dietel>

Following are some reasons for creation of a process



Process Termination

A process terminates when it finishes executing its last statement. Its resources are returned to the system, it is purged from any system lists or tables, and its process control block (PCB) is erased i.e., the PCB's memory space is returned to a free memory pool. The new process terminates the existing process, usually due to following reasons:



Process States

A process goes through a series of discrete process states.

Logically, the 'Running' and 'Ready' states are similar. In both cases the process is willing to run, only in the case of 'Ready' state, there is temporarily no CPU available for it. The 'Blocked' state is different from the 'Running' and 'Ready' states in that the process cannot run, even if the CPU is available.



Process State Transitions

Following are six(6) possible transitions among above mentioned five (5) states



FIGURE from Notes