(Adapted from Held et al. 1999; p. 10)

(Kenichi Ohmae)
(Held and Thompson)
TRANSFORMATIONALISTS (Held et al.; Cerny; Evans)
What's is new? A global age Relatively little; new trading blocs; weaker supra-national governance than earlier periods Historically unprecedented levels of global interconnectedness
What is the central characteristic of the global economy? Global capitalism; elimination of geography; global culture; global civil society World less interdependent than in 1890s. MNCs not TNCs. "Thick" globalization. Interconnectedness is more intense (within economic sectors) and more extensive (across regions)
What's the driving force of globalization? Capitalism and technology States and markets Lots of stuff: very messy
What's happening to the nation-state? Declining and eroding Reinforced and enhanced It's changing: very messy. Not obsolete but also no longer the only player
How do they understand globalization? As a reordering framework of human action.  Internationalization and regionalization. Reordering of interregional relations (messy)
What's likely to happen in the future? Global civilization (The Matrix?) Regional blocs/clash of Civilizations Who knows? Global fragmentation and integration.
What's their central argument The Nation-state is history Internationalization relies on the support and acquiescence of states  Globalization is transforming state power and world politics.