"I know nothing except the fact of my ignorance." - Socrates,
from Diogenes Laertius
Philosophers at Miletus (Greek) tried to pick out the common identical elements
(essentials) from the various processes of nature to arrive at a “first
principle” to which all phenomena could be referred. This led to the concept of
a primal substance, something fundamental which remains constant (unchanged)
throughout all change. Thales, Anaximander and Anaximenes established water, the
infinity and air respectively as the fundamental principle. To the question,
exactly which process transforms this so-called primal substance into its
various derivatives? Thales seems to have no explanation; Anaximander gave moral
explanation in terms of hot and cold (concept of Justice); and Anaximenes talked
about the process of rarefaction and condensation to explain how one could get
various derivatives from water.
Leucippus and Democritus are the founders of atomism. In fourth century B.C.,
their writings were re-edited in one and the same collection. As a result, they
are generally mentioned together and it is very difficult to disentangle them.
In addition, this led Epicurus to deny the historical existence of Leucippus.
They believed that everything is composed of atoms, which are physically, but
not geometrically, indivisible that between the atoms there is empty space. In
addition, atoms are indestructible; atoms always have been and always will be in
motion. There is infinite number of atoms. Their point of view was remarkably
like that of modern science, and avoided most of the faults to which Greeks
speculation was prone.
Zeno of Elea (circa 490 BC)
Born: 495 B.C.
Died: 430 B.C.
A pupil of Parmenides,
who sought to expound his teacher's philosophy through a series of paradoxes
intended to refute plurality and prove motion illusory. The Pythogoreans were
his main opponents. Parmenides appears in
the Platonic dialogue named after him.
|Born: 445 B.C.E.
Died: 360 B.C.E.
|Born: 435 B.C
Died: 366 B.C.
He was born in Cyrene, North Africa.
His all writings are lost.
|Born Sinope, Paphlygonia
Died c. 320 BC , probably at Corinth, Greece
Cynic Philosophers and Their Techniques,
The -- A analysis of the life of
the cynics and their techniques of "parrhesia", excerpt from a seminar
given by the French philosopher Michel Foucault in 1983.
- Day with Diogenes,
A -- A fictional dialogue by Terry Ballard.
and Alexander -- Drawing by Honore Daumier (1842).
Sinope -- His outstanding pupils were Thucydides, Euripides,
and other Greeks.From
the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
- Diogenes of Sinope -- Short
biography and links by Colin Pringle.
of Sinope Forum Frigate -- A forum to post questions about the cynic philosopher.
of Sinope -- Article and anecdotes about his way of life by Ben Best.
the Cynic -- A
few stories about "the Dog".
the original Cynic -- Short biography from the Guardian Education archives.
of Isocrates, Aristotle, and Diogenes -- An article about his life
and times by Sanderson Beck.
- Homeless Philosopher,
The -- Article
about his life and the principles of the Cynics.
-- By John William Waterhouse
(1849-1917) - Diogenes, 1882, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
|Born: 341 B.C.
Died: 270 B.C.
|Born: 99 B.C.E.
Died: 55 B.C.E.
Four Great Men (Creators
|Born: 19 Feb 1473 in Torun, Poland
Died: 24 May 1543 in Frombork, Poland
Chief Work: De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (On the revolutions
of the heavenly spheres).
The Copernican theory: The Sun (not the Earth) is at rest in the center
of the Universe.
|Born: Dec 27, 1571 in Weil der Stadt,
Württemberg, Holy Roman Empire (now Germany)
Died: Nov 15, 1630 in Regensburg (now in Germany)
Chief Work: Astronomia nova (New Astronomy), it contains
Kepler's first and second law on elliptical orbits, but only verified for
the planet Mars.
|Born: Feb 15, 1564 in Pisa (now in Italy)
Died: Jan 8, 1642 in Arcetri (near Florence) (now in Italy)
Chief Work: Sidereus Nuncius (Message from the stars)
it describes the astronomical discoveries he has made with his telescopes.
|Born: Jan 4, 1643 in Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire, England
Died: March 31, 1727 in London, England
Chief Work: The Principia or Philosophiae naturalis principia
mathematica (The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy).
The Principia, recognised as the greatest scientific book ever written.
The Principia presents his theories of motion, gravity, and mechanics.
His theories explain the eccentric orbits of comets, the tides and their
variations, the precession of the Earth's axis, and motion of the Moon.
Sir Thomas More
|Born: 1548 in Nola (near Naples), Italy
Died: 17 Feb 1600 in Rome, Italy
|Born: Jan 22, 1561 in London
Died: April 9, 1626 in London
Baconiana -- Published by the Bacon
Society of America in 1923.
F -- Biographical information,
e-texts, images, and links.
- Canonbury Tower Forum,
The -- A search engine, a chat
room, and a study room.
Quotations from Francis Bacon -- Quotations from the writer,
with search links.
of Sir Francis Bacon -- E-Texts.
Bacon -- Brief biography with a
link to the etext of "New Atlantis."
Bacon (1561-1626). -- "A short discussion on
the life and work of Francis Bacon."
Bacon Research Trust General Information -- The Trust is concerned
with education in the life and works of the secret master, Sir Francis
Bacon, the Rosicrucians and other key exponents of the Ancient (and Ageless)
Wisdom associated with him or having a bearing on his work.
- Great Works of Francis Bacon,
The -- Features a biography, essays,
and assorted poetry.
Francis Bacon -- Includes biographical sketch,
listing of works, quotations, and a timeline of the writer's life.
Francis Bacon (1561-1626) -- A Power Point presentation
with concentration on Bacon's scientific philosophies.
Francis Bacon (1561-1626) -- Covering the life, works,
and resources, at luminarium.org.
Francis Bacon Meets The New Advancement of Learning -- Bacon's life and work.
Francis Bacon Discussion Forum -- Forum and live chat devoted
to the life and works of Sir Francis Bacon.
|Born: April 5, 1588 in Westport, Malmesbury,
Died: Dec. 5, 1679 in Hardwick Hall, Derbyshire, England
De Cive by Thomas Hobbes (1651) -- Thomas Hobbes' classic work of
psychology, morals, and political theory, in readable hypertext.
Descartes' Meditations -- Online Text in Latin and
in English translation.
Hobbes - Biography(1588-1679)
Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes -- Thomas Hobbes' classic work of
psychology, morals, politics, and theology.
Squashed Descartes -- Condensed edition of Hobbes' response to
Descartes' 'Meditatione,' with study notes and glossary.
- Thomas Hobbes
-- Even more than Bacon, Thomas Hobbes illustrated the transition from
medieval to modern thinking in Britain
- Thomas Hobbes
(1588-1679) -- Biographical information.
Thomas Hobbes Discussion Deck -- Discussion forum regarding the best
books and criticisms of Thomas Hobbes.
Thomas Hobbes Discussion Forum -- Forum and live chat for discussing
the life and philosophy of Thomas Hobbes.
Thomas Hobbes -- Includes biographical sketch, an introduction
to his philosophy and writings, quotations, and a timeline of his life.
Rene Descartes -- Founder of Modern Philosophy
|Born: 31 March 1596 in La Haye (now
Died: 11 Feb 1650 in Stockholm, Sweden
Encyclopedia: René Descartes (1596-1650) -- Biographical article from
the Catholic Encyclopedia.
-- Biography of René
Descartes (1596-1650) from the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive.
-- A brief discussion of the
life and works of Rene Descartes, with links to electronic texts and additional
information by Garth Kemerling.
Directory -- Web directory of Rene Descartes, from projectlinks.org.
Epistemology -- Article by Lex Newman from
the Stanford Encyclopedia.
and Descartes -- Class notes by Stephen
Daniel, Texas A&M University.
elements in Descartes -- Part of lecture notes to
a course on Later Medieval Philosophy by John Kilcullen at Macquarie University.
Descartes -- Provides biography, works,
quotations, chronology & images, from Top-Biography.
Descartes -- Brief outline on the life and achievements of Rene
Descartes, the 17th Century French philosopher and mathematician
Descartes -- Entry on Rene Descartes
from the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Descartes -- Online texts at bartelby.com.
Descartes and the Legacy of Mind/Body Dualism -- Text by Robert H. Wozniak,
Bryn Mawr College.
Descartes -- The condensed version of
Descartes' Meditations, with study notes and glossary.
|Born: November 24, 1632
Died: February 21, 1677
Spinoza -- Critical entry on Spinoza
by Kelley L. Ross. Part of the project of the Friesian School.
Spinoza: encyclopedia article from Wikipedia -- Baruch (Benedict) Spinoza
entry at Wikipedia, a web-based encyclopedia
(Baruch) Spinoza - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy -- Internet Encyclopedia of
Philosophy entry on Baruch Spinoza, with biography and main elements of
his philosophical thought.
de Spinoza and Spinozism -Devoted to the doctrines
of the Dutch philosopher and rationalist. Includes numerous links to texts,
studies, and bibliographies.
Guide to Spinoza -- Short biographical entry
with some additional links to other Spinoza sites.
Science Library's Spinoza Webliography -- Links to websites with
- Dedication to Spinoza's Insights,
A -- Personal page with links
to Spinoza's electronic texts with commentary, a Spinoza glossary, and
other Spinoza sites. By Joseph B. Yesselman.
-- Philosophy resources on
the net: Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677).
- First Modern Pantheist,
The: Spinoza -- Outline of pantheism in
Kemerling's Philosophy Pages: Spinoza -- A brief discussion of the
life and works of Baruch Spinoza, with links to electronic texts and additional
Books Index: Spinoza -- An index to online editions
(HTML and text versions) of Spinoza's four main works.
Great Books: Benedictus de Spinoza -- Spinoza links compiled
by Russell McNeil.
Net -- Links to numerous sites,
including Spinoza sites.
- Spinoza Chronology -- A chronology of historical
events pertaining to Spinoza's life, philosophy, and cultural situation.
Ethics -- Brief summary of some aspects
of Spinoza's moral philosophy.
Glossary and Index -- Glossary of Spinoza's definitions.
- Spinoza Net -- A large site dedicated
to promoting research, knowledge, and discussions about the works, reception,
and contributions of Baruch Spinoza.
Net in Israel -- Well-organized Israeli
site dedicated to furthering research, knowledge, and discussion about
the works, reception, and contributions of Baruch Spinoza.
Spinoziana -- A Spinoza site with links
to studies, translations, and other pertinent 17th century figures.
Web -- A resource page for Spinoza
The Window: Baruch Spinoza -- A short biography of the
Dutch philosopher. Part of The Window, a clearinghouse for philosophy on
- Benedictus de Spinoza -- University of Amsterdam's
Digital Library by academic discipline: Philosophy. Benedictus de Spinoza.
Includes important papers, bibliographies, and links.
of Spinoza -- Spinoza's writings, including:
Ethics, On the Improvement of the Understanding, Theological-Political
Treatise, Short Treatise on God, Man, and His Well-Being (Abraham Wolf
translation), as well as a selection of Spinoza's correspondence.
|Born: July1, 1646 in Leipzig, Saxony
Died: Nov 14, 1716 in Hannover, Hanover (now Germany)
-- Theory of Knowledge, political Philosophy, Influence, etc.
|Born: Aug 29, 1632
Died: Oct 28, 1704
3LL3 -- Locke -- Links to some of his works
and a biography.
Locke -- Biographical entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Locke -- Biographical information
and an explanation of his ideas. From the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Locke -- Biographical information.
Locke Bibliography -- Listing of recent publications
about the English philosopher.
Locke Biography - Top Cassette -- Life, works, philosophy,
features, and quotations.
Locke Campfire Chat -- A message board where discussions
about John Locke and his works can be facilitated.
Locke Forum Frigate -- Discussion forum devoted
to John Locke's life and works.
Locke Timeline -- A listing of events that
were influential in Locke's life.
Locke's Works -- A collection to John Locke's
important writings, and a few links to some of his lesser known works.
- Locke Institute,
The -- An independent, non-partisan
educational and research organization. Named after John Locke, the Institute
ascribes to his theory that society is based on natural law and that the
individual is the ultimate source of political sovereignty.
John -- A collection of facts about
who Locke was and what he did.
on John Locke -- A summarized look at the
philosophy of John Locke, including a selection from his classic work,
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.
Philosophies of Locke and Rousseau, The
-- A critical look at Locke's
philosophies in contrast with Rousseau's.
Thoughts Concerning Education -- Locke advocates the moral
education of children, rather a pedantic focus on the mere acquisition
John Locke -- Biography and a look at
Who is John Locke -- A concise biography of
John Locke and overview of his philosophies.
|Born: March 12, 1685 in Dysert Castle (near
Thomastown), County Kilkenny, Ireland
Died: Jan 14, 1753 in Oxford, England
The -- The Analyst: a Discourse
addressed to an Infidel Mathematician. Full text in HTML.
Studies -- Extensive site by Peter
George Berkeley -- Page promoting George Berkeley's
Berkeley Society - The Society promotes all
studies of the 18th-century Irish philosopher, George Berkeley, by organizing
conferences and symposia, and publishing scholarly work.
Berkeley -- Some online texts at bartleby.com.
Berkeley -- Provides essays and dialogues
of Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley.
Berkeley -- Links page, includes texts
Berkeley -- Offers history and theories
of Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley.
Berkeley's Idealism -- Theological idealism rests
on the thoughts of Bishop George Berkeley. For him, ontology grows out
of epistemology since idea is the basic unit of existence.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
|Born: June 28, 1712 in Geneva
Died: July 2, 1778 in Ermenonville (28 m. n.e. of Paris)
|Born: April 22, 1724 in Königsburg, East
Died: Feb 12, 1804 in Königsburg, East Prussia
About Immanuel Kant: Andy's Carpenter's Kant World -- Research, translations,
external links, web bookstore for Kantians
Carpenter's Course Materials in Philosophy: Kant Syllabi -- Systematic collection of
links to syllabi, handouts, assignments, and other course materials.
of English Translations -- Steve Palmquist's exhaustive
list of English translations of Kant (current through July 1994)
Kant have been a Utilitarian? --
Provocative extract from
the book Sorting Out Ethics by R. M. Hare.
of Pure Reason by Immanuel Kant -- A readable HTML version
of Kant's classic work of epistemology, psychology, and theology, at Philosophers'
of Practical Reason by Immanuel Kant -- Translated by Thomas Kingsmill
Abbott, from Philosophers' Valhalla.
of Kant's Technical Terms -- Short glossary with explanations
to some kantian technical terms like transcendental, a priori or understanding.
Kant -- Concise biography of Immanuel
Kant with quotations and a chronology.
Kant (1724-1804) -- Biography and overview
of his philosophy.
Kant Discussion Deck -- Forum and live chat devoted
to discussing Immanuel Kant.
Kant Information Online -- Marburg archive, German
Kant Information Online -- Marburg archive, English
Kant Knowledge Products Audio Classics -- Advertisement for and audiotape
(narrated by Charlton Heston) about Immanuel Kant's life, his works and
Bibliography -- Bibliography of Kant's
works and secondary literature.
der Universität Mainz -- English version
Kant Lexicon -- Short Kant-Lexicon with
Links -- Links to work by and about
the philosopher, Immanuel Kant
on the Web -- external links, e-texts on Kant, e-texts of
Universal Natural History and Theory of Heaven -- Available in
the Universal Law Formation of the Categorical Imperative -- Kantian philosophy outlines
the Universal Law Formation of the Categorical Imperative as a method for
determining morality of actions. Investigate further here.
- Limited Area Search of Philosophy on the Internet: Kant Search
-- Over 1,000 links to philosophical
sites with entries on Kant
- Slice of Philosophy: Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
-- Brief information about
life and works of Immanuel Kant.
International Kantkongress -- Homepage of the Ninth International
Kant Congress (Berlin, March 2000)
American Kant Society -- NAKS Homepage
Over 800 e-texts, articles,
reviews, lectures, pictures, and study guides
Research Base: Immanuel Kant -- links, e-texts, editorial review of recent
Johann Gottlieb Fichte
|Born: May 19,
Helvetius, Claude Adrien -- Book: De l'Esprit (1758)
|Born: January 26, 1715 in Paris
Died: Dec. 26, 1771 in Paris
Full name is Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat Condorcet
|Born: 17 Sept 1743 in Ribemont, France
Died: 29 March 1794 in Bourg-la-Reine (near Paris), France
|Born: Aug 27, 1770 in Stuttgart, Germany
Died: Nov. 14, 1831 in Berlin
Theodor: "Negative Dialectics" -- By Hegel, however, notably by
the Hegel of the Philosophy of History and Philosophy of Right, the historical
objectivity that happened to come about is exalted into transcendence: 'This
universal substance is not the mundane; the mundane impotently strives against
it. No individual can get beyond this substance; he can differ from other
individuals, but not from the popular spirit.'
Shlomo -- From Hegel's Theory of
the Modern State, chapter 5: "Modern life and social reality." Uses some
of Hegel's little known early works to analyze his view of property.
Andrew: "Remarks on Hegel's Philosophy of Law" -- A study of the possibility
of Hegelian constitutionalism. From the Paideia Project.
Andrew: "An Hegelian Perspective on Liberalism and Communitarianism"
-- Discusses how Hegel's Philosophy
of Right can advance the contemporary dialogue between liberalism and communitarianism.
Andrew: "Hegel's Ethical Defense of War" -- Explores and critiques
the bases of Hegel's view of war, with particular reference to the Philosophy
Gustavus Watts: "Thought and Reality in Hegel's System" -- Online edition of a classic
1910 monograph. In hyperlinked HTML.
Araujo, Paulo Roberto Monteiro -- How the Hegelian philosophy
can contribute to the conceptual discussions between the two strains of
contemporary ethical-political philosophy. From the Paideia Project.
J.; "Speech and writing according to Hegel" -- "We shall here be interested
in the difference of this narrowing, discovering on the way nothing else
than a narrowing of difference: another name for the medium of the spirit."
Daniel: "Hegel's Dialogue with Lesser Known Philosophers" -- A brief study of Hegel's
relation to assorted thinkers of the eighteenth and nineteenth century,
such as Hamann and Jacobi.
J. N.; "Foreword to Hegel's Logic" -- Foreword to the Oxford
edition of Hegel's Shorter Logic by J. N. Findlay, translator of the Science
Hegel -- Social and Political Thought -- The Internet Encyclopedia
of Philosophy entry on Hegel, by David Duquette. Includes biography, bibliography,
discussion of major aspects of Hegel's work, and a detailed study of the
Philosophy of Right.
by Hypertext -- Extensive resource on Hegel
and his works, with texts and commentaries.
E-Mail List -- A listserv dedicated to
conversation about the philosopher's life and work. Public archive of messages.
E-Mail List -- The "Hegel" listserv, dedicated
to exploring all aspects of Hegel's system. Public archive of messages.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich -- The entry on Hegel from
the Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Extensively cross-referenced.
Martin; "Hegel and the Greeks" -- "How does Hegel present
the philosophy of the Greeks within the horizon of his philosophy?" From
the Conference of the Academy of Sciences at Heidelberg, July 26, 1958.
- Hegel Network, The
-- Essays and links to help
understand, rethink, explain, sublate, and live the philosophy of G.W.F.
Hegel. Includes bibliography, biography and texts.
Science of Philosophy -- A set of resources dedicated
to the greater understanding of Hegel's work. Includes several online courses,
numerous articles, and research aids.
Society of America -- Information concerning
upcoming Hegel conferences, Hegel e-mail lists, and the Society's journal,
the Owl of Minerva.
Society of Great Britain -- News concerning meetings
and conferences of the Hegel Society of Great Britain (HSGB), as well as
information about the Society's biennial Bulletin.
Jean; "The Organisation of the Logic" -- "Hegelian Logic is the
absolute genesis of sense, a sense which, to itself, is its own sense,
which is not opposed to the being whose sense it is, but which is sense
and being simultaneously. This genesis resembles an organic growth, a perpetual
reproduction and self-amplification. There is no external purposiveness,
but an immanent purposiveness whose image in nature is organic life. The
contradiction of this growth is its immanent intentionality; how can it
Alexandre; "The Dialectic of the Real and Phenomenological Method in Hegel"
-- Chapter 1 of Kojeve's treatment
of Hegel's system, "Introduction to the Reading of Hegel." An English translation
from French, from the 1969 Basic Books edition.
David: "Before Beyond Function" -- A detailed appraisal of
Hegel's thinking on architecture, based primarily on Hegel's Lectures on
Aesthetics. Particular attention is paid to Hegel's preference for Classical
over Romantic architecture.
William; "Why Hegel is Not an Idealist" -- "If we speak of 'what is
living and what is dead' in Hegel, it is probably safe to say that nowadays,
nothing is more dead than Hegel's philosophy of nature. I shall examine
and question this diagnosis, contending that the Philosophy of Nature has
been subject to a premature burial."
Herbert; "Hegel's First System" -- Chapter from Marcuse's
1941 Reason and Revolution explaining the earliest version of Hegel's Logic
"Studies in the Hegelian Dialectic" -- "Hegel's primary object
in his dialectic is to establish the existence of a logical connection
between the various categories which are involved in the constitution of
experience. He teaches that this connection is of such a kind that any
category, if scrutinised with sufficient care and attention, is found to
lead on to another, and to involve it, in such a manner that an attempt
to use the first of any subject while we refuse to use the second of the
same subject results in a contradiction."
Karl; "Critique of Hegel's Dialectic and General Philosophy" -- "This is, perhaps, the
place to make a few remarks, by way of explanation and justification, about
the Hegelian dialectic -- both in general and in particular, as expounded
in the Phenomenology and Logic, as well as about its relation to the modern
Kelly: A Popperian View -- A critical view of Hegel's
philosophy as a whole, with special reference to Hegel's philosophy of
Josiah; "The Hegelian Theory of Universals" -- "The Hegelian theory of
Universals is intended, of course, as the text has also shown, to offer
a solution of the ancient question as to the reality of universals. What
objective validity have our general concepts?"
of Hegel's System - Includes a biography, a
discussion of the differences between the systems of Hegel and Schelling,
and a unitary overview of Hegel's thought.
Antoinette: "The Feminist Critique of Hegel" -- A comparison of four feminist
critics of Hegel, with an aim to a coherent treatment of the problem for
feminism which Hegel represents.
Encyclopedia of Philosophy Entry -- A detailed account of the
development of Hegel's doctrine through his various works. Composed by
Janko: "On the Absolute Rational Will" -- An online book aimed at
developing a contemporary philosophy which is true, through incorporating
and sublating Hegel's philosophy.
Guide to the Philosophy of History -- Study notes from SparkNotes.
Supplemented with a Hegel message board.
Paul E.: "Was Hegel Christian or Atheist?" -- Explores Hegel's relation
to Christianity, atheism and paganism in the light of the struggle between
the Left and Right Hegelians. Presents a view of Hegelianism as a freedom-loving
International Hegel Society Conference -- To be held in Jena, Germany,
covering issues raised by Hegel's 1802 "Faith and Knowledge." Features
organizational and contact information, background. In German, English,
French, Spanish and Italian.
Taiwo: "Exorcising Hegel's Ghost" -- Explores how the biases
inherent in Hegel's works have brought about a mindset which excludes Africa
from the history of human achievement. Based mostly on Hegel's Philosophy
of Minerva Index -- Alphabetical index of the
past 25 years of articles in the Owl of Minerva, the official journal of
the Hegel Society of America.
Hisorshi; "Marx's Grundrisse and Hegel's Logic" -- Preface from new analysis
of relation between Marx and Hegel. "I attempt to prove that the relation
is more profound and more systematic than hitherto appreciated."
Alfred -- Chapter on Hegel from The
History of Philosophy, translated by Frank Thilly.
-- Principal Work: The world as Will and Idea (1818)
|Born: Feb 22, 1788
Died: Sep 21, 1860
John Stuart Mill
|Born: May 20, 1806 in Pentonville, London
Died: May 8, !873 in Avignon, France
Stuart Mill -- Article from Internet Encyclopedia
of Philosophy on the life and writings of Mill.
Liberty - by John Stuart Mill (1869).
Full text from Bartleby Library.
Stuart Mill -- British philosopher
and economist. Full text of autobiography, and other works.
- Mill - Online text of The Principles
of Political Economy by John Stuart Mill
Government - Full work in text format
from EServer, based at the University of Washington.
Place: Mill, John Stuart - Columbia University John
Stuart Mill page.
Stuart Mill - Biographical details of
Mill, as well as online texts of his Autobiography and his works, On Liberty
Mill -Condensed edition of Mill's
'On Liberty' with study notes and glossary.
of Political Economy - Full text in HTML format,
presented by the Liberty Fund.
Stuart Mill - Provides biography, works,
quotations, chronology & images, from Top-Biography.
Stuart Mill Forum Frigate - Discussion forum and live
chat devoted to John Stuart Mill's life and works.
Notes and questions on
"On Liberty" made by an Oxford University student.
John Stuart Mill Lecture Hall
- John Stuart Mill message board and
chat room, provided by Western Canon Great Books University
On Liberty - Full summary and analysis
of On Liberty by John Stuart Mill written by Harvard students, includes
a biography, message board, and background information.
|Born: April 27th, 1820
Died: December 8, 1903
|Born: Oct 15, 1844 in Saxony, Prussia
Died: Aug 25, 1900
of the Idols - Abridged e-text.
Nietzsche Page - Extensive page of organized
of Nietzsche Studies - Quarterly-published academic
journal covering Nietzsche's philosophy.
Nietzsche Society - Founded in 1990. Sponsors a journal and a yearly
Guide to Philosophy - Nietzsche -
Contains a biography, dated
listing of his works, and links to published papers.
Nietzsche -Entry from the Stanford
Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
and Friedrich Nietzsche - Includes a biography, essays,
articles, photos, quotes and links.
Perspectives of Nietzsche -Highlights of his views.
aphorism generator - Randomly displayed maxims
from his works.
the Use and Abuse of History for Life -E-text of the Johnston
Nietzsche Channel - Collected text in English
and German with Nietzsche's music, correspondence and notes.
Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-1900) -
Biography and synopsis.
Campfire Chat -Featuring a lecture hall
Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche -
E-text of H.L. Mencken's
synopsis of the philosopher.
Eternal Return - Links on Eternal Return
in English and in German.
Telling the Truth About History -
This essay discusses his
views on history as related to current trends in historical studies.
- E-text of the 1912 synopsis
by Paul Elmer More.
Friedrich Nietzsche - Includes biography, versions
of his books, and links.
All-Too-Human -Abridged e-text of the
Labyrinth - His books are archived
here, with some other works.
of the Idols -E-text of the Kaufmann/Hollingdale
Lighthouse - Forum and live chat devoted
to discussing his life and works.
Dawn (or Daybreak) - Abridged e-text of the
J.M. Kennedy translation.
Works - A collaboration of various
sites to collect all available HTML versions in English in one website;
all texts fully searchable.
Nietzsche - Biography with pictures.
Spake Zarathustra - E-text of the Common translation.
T-shirts - A Nietzsche quote and a black-and-white drawing are on the front.
Spake Zarathustra -E-text of several versions
from Project Gutenberg.
Man - A dialogue about the future
evolution of Mankind.
Antichrist - E-text of the Mencken translation.
Nietzsche - A life and times of Nietzsche.
- AOL site dealing with his
Twilight of the Idols -Summary and analysis of
is Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche A comprehensive discussion
using material from Thus Spoke Zarathustra.
Pal Nietzsche - Discussion forum intended
"for the übermensch at heart."
Nietzsche Channel -Nietzsche texts, links, BBS, and graffiti wall.
Nietzsche Page - Online resource from the
USC philosophy department.
- Writings of
|Born: May 5, 1818 born in Trier, Germany
Died: March 14, 1883 in London
of Karl Marx's Least-aspected Mercury -- Biography of Karl Marx
with a special focus on how the planetary symbols of Mercury and Neptune
were reflected in his life and work, by renowned astrocartographer Rob
Guide To Philosophy - Marx -- Includes links to several
works by Marx, discussion lists and other links.
Communist Manifesto -- Etext at Project Gutenberg.
- Communist Manifesto,
The -- Discussion forums for posting
questions, responses and comments about Karl Marx's political treatise.
Full text of the Communist
Manifesto -- by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels
Marx -- Biography with clickable
Marx, 1818-1883 -- Biography from The History
Guide: Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History.
Marx and the Paris Commune -- An analysis of the impact
the Paris Commune of 1871 had on the revolutionary thinking of Karl Marx.
Marx Biography -- Life, works, achievements,
chronology, quotations of Karl Marx and analysis of his works.
Marx Discussion Forum -- Forum and live chat devoted
to the life and works of Karl Marx.
Marx, Manifesto of the Communist Party -- Online version of the text.
Marx: The Story of His Life -- Biography of Karl Marx
written in 1918 by Franz Mehring.
Internet Archive -- Archive of Karl Marx and
Fredrick Engels' writings, speeches and letters.
-- Short biographical note
and a list of links.
-- A brief discussion of the
life and works of Karl Marx, with links to electronic texts and additional
Theory of Money -- The most important point
to emerge from Marx's theory of money is the idea that money is a form
of value. The difficulty with this idea is that we are more familiar with
money itself than with value in other forms
1844 Manuscripts Hypertext -- Karl Marx's most enigmatic
text available online in hypertext form that follows the original pagination
- MarX-Files: Resources on Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
-- An annotated web guide
containing links to the major works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels as
well as other Marxist resources.
: Karl Marx -- Biographical notes from
The Window -- Philsophy on the WWW Philosophers Section.
on Karl Marx -- A biographical lecture
on Marx by Steven Kreis.
Marx - Condensed edition of Marx
and Engels 'The German Ideology' with study notes and glossary.
Navigation Tool: Marx -- Sociology resource center
for students and professionals wishing to find relevant and up to date sociologcal resources on the net.
is Marxist Philosophy -- Some citations and analyses
of Karl Marx's political and philsophical writings.
of the World Unite -- Information about Karl
Marx and the Marx Memorial Library.
| Born: Nov 11,1842 in New York City
Died: Aug 26 1910 in New York City
Oct 20, 1852 in
Burlington, Vermont (USA)
1952 in New York City
for Dewey Studies -- The Center for Dewey Studies
at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, with resources and texts.
and Education, by John Dewey -- Full chapter-by-chapter
text, HTML format.
of Informal Education: John Dewey -- Brief biography, partial
bibliography, and links.
Is Easy, by John Dewey -- Essay by John Dewey published
in The New Republic (March 23, 1927), critical of U.S. involvement in Mexico.
Dewey and F. Matthias Alexander -- Information and links relating
to the influence of the Alexander Technique on John Dewey.
Dewey and the F. M. Alexander Technique -- Texts of Dewey's writings
about the Alexander Technique.
Dewey Biography -- Provides biography, works,
quotations, chronology & images, from Top-Biography.
Dewey Email Discussion List -- Called Dewey-L, this is
a forum devoted to John Dewey's philosophy. It is open to anyone interested
in Dewey's philosophy.
School and Society, by John Dewey -- Complete chapter-by-chapter
text of his book.
of Dewey's: Freedom and Culture -- Rough draft of a brief
review of Dewey's book Freedom and Culture (1939).
of Dewey's: The Quest for Certainty -- A book review of Dewey's
The Quest for Certainty: A Study of the Relation of Knowledge and Action
(1929), by Alex Scott.
Pedagogic Creed -- Essay by John Dewey outlining
his theory of education. Progressive education in brief.
Commands: Why They Don't Work -- F.M. Alexander's analysis
of the futility of telling someone to stand up straight, as told by John
Dewey based on his experience with the Alexander Technique.
- Pragmatism Cybrary, The
-- A research resource offering
information on famous pragmatists, directories of centers and societies,
philosophy lists, conferences, and publications.
Unknown Dewey -- The philosophy of John
Dewey, with emphasis on its relation to the Alexander Technique.
originally Jorge Augustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana
|Born: Dec 16, 1863 in Madrid, Spain
Died: Sep 26, 1952 in Rome, Italy